Category Archives: General History

About the times in which these ancestors lived. The original American colonies, old world Europe, Ohio, Michigan and Canadian History.

Issac Woolner – Emigrated to Canada 1832

Issac Woolner (1792 -1860) emigrated to Canada with his wife Sarah Hembling and their 6 children in 1832.  Isaac served in Her Majesty’s 43rd Light Infantry Regiment (1812-1819) and intended to petition for a veteran’s land grant.  As one of the earlier settlers of what is now Ontario, Canada, Issac’s arrival in Canada is documented in a 1896 Biographical History.

Waterloo Township History
Waterloo Township History

Their arrival was filled with tragedy. They docked at Hamilton, Ontario in the third week of June 1832 but unluckily sheltered at a house where the ‘former residents had died of cholera.’  Many of the family came down with the disease while traveling to the Bridgeport area.   Issac’s wife Sarah and their youngest child James died.

Since widowed Issac was without his homestead, he placed his daughters Martha (b.1820) and Hannah (b.1825), and his three sons Abraham (b.1822-1838), Issac (b.1824), and Jacob (b.1826) in foster care until he became settled.  This full story is in Eby Book Volume 2 – Page 685. and continues to page 686.  Many of the children remained in foster care, and by my count, two of the veteran’s children (Hannah and Jacob) became part of the non-violent Mennonite community as the following story relates (sounds like it also draws from Eby):

Jacob Woolner, Mennonite Preacher

Issac obtained his land grant and remarried.  Eby wrote, “His second wife was Bridget Connor, widow of Mr. Connor.”  They had 6 children:  Ann, Abraham, William, George, James and Mary Jane, married to Joseph Carr (Kerr).

1851-Census-of-Canada-East-Canada-West-New-Brunswick-and-Nova-Scotia
1851-Census-of-Canada-East-Canada-West-New-Brunswick-and-Nova-Scotia

The 1851 Canada Census showed this second family in Garafraxa, Ontario.  In addition to the 6 children Ezra Eby named in  his Biographical History of Waterloo Township, there is a Moriah (Maria?) who will be 18 yrs old on her next birthday. (The census asks for next age, not current age).  There is also a Walter Connor listed on the same census immediately after the Woolners.  Could this be Bridget’s son with her first husband? Could Moriah be her daughter?  What was Bridget’s maiden name?

In 1851, the children would be the following ages on their next birthday: Ann(16), Abraham(14), William(12),  James(10), George(8),  and Mary Jane(6)

When the 1861 Census is taken, Issac Woolner has passed away.  He died in 1860 at the age of 68.  They now live in a log house built in 1855.  In the 1851 Census Bridget appears as his wife, now she appears as Ann.   The family appears incorrectly as Wolloner with two l’s and not two o’s.

Compared to the 1851 census, the oldest child Ann is missing and so is Moriah. Why would 58 yrs old Bridget go by her daughter Ann’s name?  Is daughter named after her mom? With child Ann absent did Bridget revert to Ann?

Isaac Woolner Family 1861
Isaac Woolner Family 1861

The remainder of the enumeration is as expected: Abraham (‘Age Next Birthday’ is 21); Bridget / ‘Ann’ of Ireland (w/b 59); William (w/b 20); James (w/b 19); George (w/b 17); Mary Jane (w/b  15).

Mary Jane Woolner would soon marry Joseph Carr/Kerr and they would begin their own family.  James and George are Woolner family names and Mary Jane used them for her own children.  What is becoming more clear, there is very little we know about Bridget/Ann Connor.

The author’s direct line appears in BLUE.

Private Isaac Woolner – British Army

Isaac Woolner (1792 – 1860)  was born at Beckles, St Andrews, Suffolk, England, UK on 1 August 1792.  His parents were John Woolner and Ann (Salter) Woolner.   Isaac would in 1832 move to British Canada with his family and begin a new life.  But long before that emigration, Isaac would go to war.

Enlistment.   Bristol, England – 4th of May 1812 (date of attestation) (a recruit described a 20-years old laborer with brown hair and hazel eyes standing 5’9″ from Suffolk, BecclesIssac Woolner entered military service with the British Army.  Corporal Thomas enlisted young Isaac for seven years of service.

Isaac’s life intertwined with British military history once he entered the service.   While his life’s events are largely lost to time, his military unit’s history is well documented.  British archives have payroll records and unit reports but absent those documents we can look to the regiment as a whole.

Issac Woolner British Army
British Army – Private Woolner was assigned to the 43rd “Monmouthshire” Light Infantry Regiment.  Also see featured picture.

The 43rd Regiment of Foot, as it was called before 1803, was stationed in the 13 colonies for almost the entire American Revolution (1774 – 1781).  It fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill and Lexington and was at the British Yorktown surrender. It is a popular unit for reenactments because of this service history. Pennsylvania reenactments.  But all this was before Isaac’s birth in 1792.

Renamed in 1803, Recruit Isaac Woolner was assigned to the 43rd “Monmouthshire” Light Infantry Regiment which was combined with the 52nd Foot and 95th Rifles to become the First Corps of Light Infantry which formed the Light Brigade at Shorncliffe, Kent commanded by Sir John Moore.  They were very active in the war against Napoleon.

Death of Sir John Moore 1809
Death of Sir John Moore 1809

The 95th Rifle* wore a new dark green uniform.  The 43rd and 52nd wore the traditional red. In 1808, France advance toward Lisbon, Portugal and the Light Brigade was crucial in the Battle of Vimiera and to driving the French back to Spain.  The army withdrew after the French rallied and counterattacked.  Sir John Moore was killed in battle.  

The 43rd had two battalions in 1812.  I have not determined which one Pvt. Woolner was attached to, however, he was in all likelihood deployed with the 1st Battalion.  Attention to battalion history makes this a fair assumption.

In the war against Napoleon. the two battalions fought together through 1808.  Military command later deployed the 1st Battalion back to the Iberian Peninsula, but they redeployed the 2nd Battalion (raised for this escalating war in 1804) to the Netherlands as part of the Walcheren Expedition (1809).  This expedition failed horribly as many thousands of soldiers perished of disease, the 2nd Battalion soon withdrew and remained in England until disbandment in 1817.   When Pvt. Woolner enlisted by 1812, 1st Battalion was the principal active unit.

As a general matter, a British battalion should have about 1,000 men in 10 companies but that was an ideal only.  The 1st Battalion was usually primary and received reinforcements from the 2nd.  Most of the army still always suffered for men and supplies.  Battalions were named after areas where troops were raised, but once mustered, battalions often fought in different conflict areas.  A healthy recruit would not sit in England during war but would fortify the combat unit.

As noted, the 1st Battalion returned to the Iberian Peninsula and fought in Portugal and Spain during Pvt. Woolner’s enlistment period.  The 43rd fought in many battles during that time.  Here are the key battles the new recruit might have seen:

  • Battle of Salamanca (July 1812)
  • Siege of Burgos (Sep/Oct 1812)
  • Battle of Vitoria (June 1813)
  • Battles of Bidassoa and Nivelle (1813)

In 1814, the 43rd Light Infantry Regiment returned to England from the Iberian Peninsula and the Light Brigade was disbanded.  (An aside, pay lists and muster records for the 1st Battalion would confirm Pvt. Woolner’s location during these events but I still need to obtain them from The National Archives in Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU.)

In 1814, the military redeployed the 43rd “Monmouthshire” Foot Regiment back to America.  The unit fought against General Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. While the 43rd was generally held in reserve, British forces took heavy losses. The irony being, The Treat of Ghent was already signed December 24, 1814, but the news had not yet traveled to the Gulf Coast.  Any British gains would be irrelevant and reversed.

Issac
Issac Woolner petitions for 100 acres land.

In 1815, after the Battle of New Orleans, the 43rd Regiment quickly redeployed to fight a resurgent Napoleon at Waterloo, but the regiment arrived too late to take part in the battle of June 18, 1815. They remained to occupy France until November 1818.  The regiment was sent to Ireland from 1819 to 1823.  It was in Belfast, Ireland in 1819 that the British discharged Pvt. Woolner after seven years of service.

On December 3, 1819, Isaac Woolner married Sarah Hembling born 11 Jul 1797 in Ilketshall St Andrew, Suffolk, England and they soon started a family.

In 1832, Private Isaac Woolner would move his family to Canada and begin a new life.   Because the Crown awarded land to discharged military veterans, Isaac Woolner would later petition the Governor of Upper Canada for land in this manner.  But this was not then end of Isaac’s struggles.

*(The 95th Rifle is also Richard Sharpe’s regiment, a very popular fictional character created by author Bernard Cornwell.  Sean Bean played Sharpe.  Picture is as seen on the TV adaptation.)

Richard Sharpe - 95th Rifle Greens
Richard Sharpe – 95th Rifle Greens

Joseph Kerr – Census of Canada – 1871

On July 1, 1867 Canada became a country and started to celebrate Independence Day.  Originally called Dominion Day.  This is when the single Province of Ontario (called Canada) was divided into two provinces – Ontario and Quebec.  This new political division was then combined into a new federal system of government with the British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.   The Constitution Act of 1867 (modern reference) thereby united these colonies/provinces into one country called Canada. Though the British Government kept some political control for more than a century.

Joseph Kerr and Canada Census - 1871
Joseph Kerr and Canada Census – 1871

The 1871 Census of Canada is the first for the new country.   In District 34: Province of Ontario, Sub-District Division 2 – Garafraxa East Dwelling 33 dwelt Joseph Kerr (Age 28, Irish Origin) and Mary Jane (Woolner) Kerr (Age 25, English Origin).   Joseph is identified as a Presbyterian and Mary Jane as Church of England.

Joseph Kerr Family - Canada Census 1871
Joseph Kerr Family – Canada Census 1871

The Joseph Kerr Family 1871 census enumeration detail crosses to a second page.    On this second page are the Kerr children James and George.  Also in the house is Mary Jane Woolner’s older brother George Woolner.  Is this perhaps the old Woolner property?

At this point in time Mary Jane and George should have been the last children to leave their parents home (unless it was Mary Jane’s mother who left.)  It is unclear where Ann/Bridget Woolner, a widow of 10 years, is now living.  The 1871 Canadian Census (Sub-H, Div-2) has an Ann Woolner living in East Garafraxa, Wellington Centre, Ontario. It states Ann Woolner is 64 which is about 4 years younger than we might expect.

On the bottom of this second census image is a James Connor, age 66, widower, Irish, Church of England.  Ann Woolner’s previous husband was a Connor.  Even though Bridget’s 1st husband died, James Connor may still have a relationship with him.  We have so few leads about Bridget Connor that every possible lead needs consideration.